How to Become an Adjunct Professor: Job, Education, Salary
The position of adjunct professor is an important one. Colleges need instructors, and this position allows prospective academics the opportunity to try out the role of professor. Adjunct professors are hired by schools on a contractual, part-time basis as opposed to the traditional university model of full-time employment.
The role of adjunct professor is continually expanding in education, due to ever-tightening budgets and many qualified applicants for relatively few jobs. There are certainly limitations to being an adjunct professor, but there are also definite benefits. Depending on the desire of the prospective professor, the role of adjunct may be a perfect fit.
At-a-glance: adjunct instructor
With college enrollment rates rising, educational institutions nationwide use adjunct faculty to meet their budgets and to accommodate all their students.
Adjunct professors are defined as professors who are not on the tenure track. Adjunct faculty teach courses just like tenure-track professors do, but they are exempt from some of the responsibilities of fully employed university instructors. Often, contingent professors are hired to teach introductory courses that students are required to take.
The career pathway for contingent professors is a rocky one: Jobs are not guaranteed, and compensation is lower than tenure-track professors. For the right candidate, though, the opportunities for adjuncts outweigh the challenges.
Regardless of the specialized circumstances adjunct professors find themselves in, one thing is sure: They love to teach and work with students.
Adjunct professor job description
Adjunct professors typically spend most of their time with students, and they must be flexible to fulfill several responsibilities.
Typical duties of adjunct instructors include but aren’t limited to:
- Teaching graduate and undergraduate students in a specific field of expertise
- Developing and managing the class syllabus and ensuring that the syllabus meets department and college standards
- Planning and creating lectures, in-class discussions and assignments
- Grading assigned papers, quizzes and exams
- Assessing grades for students based on participation, performance in class, assignments and examinations
- Collaborating with colleagues on course curriculum
- Advising students on how to be successful in class
- Staying updated on innovations and changes within their course field
Many of the duties expected of tenure-track professors are not required by adjuncts. Contingent faculty do not have to conduct research, publish papers or attend staff meetings and events. It is important for adjunct faculty to know what they are specifically responsible for.
Who makes good adjunct faculty?
An effective adjunct professor is someone who is:
- A clear communicator
- Able to teach with ample real-world experience
- Able to show confidence teaching and presenting to a class
- Technologically savvy: can utilize email, different online learning systems and other ways to communicate with students
- Passionate about specific academic fields and education in general
Adjunct faculty in-depth
- Education: Master’s degree
- Typical study time: 5-10 years
Most commonly, adjunct professors need a master’s degree to teach higher-education classes. However, some community colleges or technical schools only require a bachelor’s degree, along with relevant experience. Teaching experience in the classroom is preferred.
Adjuncts are often hired to teach a specific course that regular faculty may not have expertise in or courses that have great demand. These positions require great flexibility and provide the opportunity to give back to the community.
Average salaries for adjunct faculty
Salary ranges for higher-education adjunct professors vary widely, depending on the type of college, the discipline professors teach, as well as the professors’ education level, teaching experience and field expertise.
Average pay for such part-time educators ranges from $20,000 to $25,000 annually, according to an NPR report.
Compensation can sometimes be calculated on a per-course or hourly basis, ranging from $18 to $70 an hour. It can also be based on the degree held by the teacher applying. Wages also vary by institution type: Typically adjunct faculty earn higher wages in traditional four-year institutions, compared to those who work at community colleges.
Here is a snapshot of average salaries for adjunct faculty:
- Glassdoor.com: $42,451
- PayScale.com: $31,357
- SimplyHired.com: $84,491
- Indeed.com: $82,000
Job outlook for adjunct professors
The employment of adjunct professors depends on several external factors. Enrollment rates are expected to increase, but the hiring of faculty relies heavily on school funding and department need.
The job outlook for postsecondary teachers is expected to grow 19 percent through 2022, according to the BLS. This forecast includes part-time postsecondary teachers as well.
Certain subjects are in higher demand than others. According to the job outlook data from the BLS, postsecondary professor employment projections will increase in these subjects by 2022:
- Biological science: 16%
- English and literature: 10%
- Philosophy and religion: 12%
- Mathematical science: 16%
Adjunct positions probably will be needed in these areas, too, especially for large introductory classes.
Many online institutions of higher learning hire part-time adjunct professors. Teaching for an accredited online university guarantees work flexibility because educators can be hired from remote locations.
Challenges and opportunities for adjunct instructors
Many of the disadvantages of working as an adjunct faculty member have been highly publicized. In the right circumstances, however, there are advantages to consider as well.
- Salary, often on a per-course or hourly basis, is lower than tenure-track professors.
- Positions are not permanent.
- Adjunct faculty may commit the same amount of nonclassroom hours as tenure-track professors, without the same pay.
- Adjuncts do not work enough hours at one institution to receive health insurance, retirement plans or other employee benefits.
- Adjunct faculty may not have a physically designated office space.
- Adjunct label may bring negative connotation from tenured faculty.
- Adjunct status can serve as a trial run before pursuing a tenure-track position.
- Adjunct instructors enjoy the flexibility to spend time with family or on other responsibilities, while still sharing knowledge by teaching a class or two.
- Contingent teachers can focus on teaching and curriculum rather than committee or department work.
- The environment is collegial and intellectual.
- Adjunct professors can impact a student’s life in a positive way.
For many adjunct faculty, the next step in their career path is to be named an assistant or associate professor with the goal of gaining tenure as a professor. Tracking down opportunities for professional development may give adjuncts a leg up when interviewing for full- or part-time positions.
Most adjuncts are subject matter experts in a particular discipline, but they may not have a lot of teaching experience or faculty development opportunities. A small number of institutions provide access to professional development funds.
A challenge for new adjuncts is classroom management and teaching a wide age range of adults. Adjuncts who are able to teach graduate courses may get higher pay, but institutions tend to require a terminal degree.
Concordia University-Portland offers an online doctorate program that aims to develop well-rounded leaders who understand the intricacies of the higher-education system. The EdD in Higher Education provides instruction on how to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of varied curriculum and instructional models. Educators will also work to innovate curriculum for all types of learners.
Historically, the professional landscape for adjunct instructors has not looked promising. Because adjunct jobs rely heavily on several external factors, the stability for those as contingent faculty is slim to none.
With college enrollment rates in flux and more schools reallocating their resources to accommodate contingent faculty, adjuncts are reaping the benefits. Several professional organizations work solely to support the careers of adjunct professors:
- The United Steelworkers Union
- New Faculty Majority
- Adjunct Action
- American Association of Adjunct Education
This video produced by the United Steelworkers Union accurately shows the reality adjunct professors are facing and encourages educators to seek the support and information they can offer:
Best of the web
The Internet makes it easy for those involved in the higher-education space to stay up-to-date on the latest news or changes for adjunct faculty.
Resources to follow on Twitter
- Adjunct Twitter: @AdjunctAction
- Guardian Higher Education Network: @GdnHigherEd
- Faculty Forward: @FacultyForward
- New Faculty Majority: @NewFacMajority
Blogs to check outLearn More: Click to view related resources.
- "Postsecondary Teachers," The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
- Claudio Sanchez, "The Sad Death of An Adjunct Professor Sparks a Labor Debate," NPR